Glossary of terms


                  A

                  A/P

                  Anterior/Posterior (anatomic terms)

                  AAOS

                  American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

                  Abdomen

                  A portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis

                  Abduct

                  To draw away from the midline

                  Abduction

                  The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction

                  Abductor

                  A muscle performing the function of abduction

                  Abscess

                  Localized collection of pus

                  Acetabulum

                  The cavity in the os coxae (hip) into which the head of the femur fits

                  Acromion

                  Bony process of the scapula which forms the point of the shoulder

                  Acute

                  Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease

                  Adamant

                  Extremely hard, as enamel of tooth

                  Adduct

                  To draw toward the midline

                  Adduction

                  The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction

                  Allograft

                  A tissue transplanted to a different individual of the same species

                  Alloy

                  A mix of metals designed to improve implant material properties for specific purposes

                  All-poly

                  A component composed entirely of polyethylene, with no metal parts

                  Amphiarthrosis

                  A joint with little movement and no joint cavity

                  Anconeus

                  Pertaining to the elbow

                  Ankylosis

                  The fusion of a joint

                  Anteflexion

                  A forward curvature; a condition in which the upper part of an organ is bent forward; opposite of retroflexion

                  Anterior

                  Placed in the front or forward part; opposite of posterior

                  Anteversion

                  A forward turning; a condition in which an entire organ is abnormally tipped forward

                  Apex

                  Top or summit

                  Aponeurosis

                  A flat sheet of white fibrous tissue, usually serving as an attachment for a muscle; plural aponeuroses; aponeurotica, Latin adjective

                  Appliance

                  Device used in support or fracture fixation external or internal

                  Apposition

                  The state of being fitted together, being in contact at the ends (see also mineral apposition)

                  Aqueous

                  Watery

                  Arthritis

                  Inflammation of a joint

                  Arthrodesis

                  Fusion of a joint, eliminating all motion

                  Arthroplasty

                  The surgical reconstruction of a joint

                  Arthrosis

                  A joint: from the Greek

                  Arthrotomy

                  Cutting into a joint

                  Articular

                  Pertaining to a joint; surfaces that "fit together"

                  Articulation

                  Movement of a joint; from the Latin

                  Asepsis

                  A condition free from germs; free from infection

                  Aspect

                  Position, surface, or face

                  Aspirate

                  To remove by suction

                  Asymmetric design

                  A design which mirrors the natural, anatomic contours of a joint, a design which comes in right and left configurations

                  Atrophy

                  A wasting away of tissue usually through disuse

                  Autograft

                  A tissue transplanted from one part to another part of the same body

                  Autonomic

                  ?Being self-controlled; independent

                  Axial

                  ?Pertaining to the axis or line about which a body turns, therefore pertaining to the trunk; opposite of appendicular

                  B

                  Beads, beaded

                  Term used to describe implant coatings made of tiny spheres (beading)

                  Biaxial

                  Turning about two axes (having two axes)

                  Biconcave

                  Having two concave surfaces

                  Bilateral

                  Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee replacement means having both knees replaced)

                  Biocompatibility

                  Materials that can coexist with living tissue without being harmful or toxic or being rejected by the host. The most common materials for joint replacement are polyethylenes, metals and ceramics, each has specific biocompatible characteristics

                  Biomechanics

                  The study of the relationship between forces and motion in biologic systems like the human body

                  Bipolar

                  Having two poles or processes

                  Blood

                  A fluid tissue circulating through heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries

                  Bone cement

                  Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone (see also cement)

                  Brachial

                  Pertaining to the arm

                  Broach

                  A tool or instrument used to enlarge the interior canal of bones to allow for insertion of implants, broaching is the process of enlarging the canal

                  C

                  Cage

                  A type of spinal implant

                  Calcaneus

                  The heel bone; also termed calcaneum

                  Calcar

                  A thickened plate of bone near the head of the femur

                  Cancellous

                  Lattice-like bone structure; softer bone

                  Cancellous bone

                  A type of bone characterized by a spongy or lattice-like structure. Also known as Trabecular Bone.

                  Cancellous-structured titanium

                  A specially-manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits bone ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also CSTi)

                  Capitate

                  Bone of the wrist having head-shaped process.

                  Capitulum

                  Little head.

                  Capsular

                  A ligament which surrounds a movable joint.

                  Caput

                  Head; capitis, "of the head."

                  Carpal

                  Pertaining to the wrist.

                  Carpus

                  The wrist; carpi, "of the wrist."

                  Caudal

                  Pertaining to any tail-like structure; inferior in position.

                  Cement

                  Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone. (Bone cement)

                  Cemented

                  An implant which is secured in a patient’s body with the aid of bone cement or the process of using cement to help fix an implant.

                  Central

                  Situated in the midportion as opposed to peripheral.

                  Chronic

                  Of long duration; opposite of acute.

                  Circumduct

                  To rotate in a cone shape around a single point, as in the shoulder joint.

                  Circumflex

                  Bent or turned about.

                  Clavicle

                  The collar bone

                  Clinical pathway

                  Established methodologies and decision trees for use by health professionals and patients in planning and preparing for medical intervention.

                  Coatings

                  Any number of different materials applied to the surface of an implant or prosthesis to aid in fixation; porous coatings generally permit ingrowth into the implant. (see also porous, beads)

                  Cobalt-chrome

                  A metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants. (also see CoCr)

                  Coccyx

                  Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).

                  CoCr

                  Cobalt Chrome Alloy, a metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants.

                  Collar, collared

                  The top edge of a hip stem implant which rests on the top edges of the bone in which it was implanted.

                  Component

                  A part of an implant system, for example the patellar component is that piece that either replaces or enhances the original patella (knee cap).

                  Concave

                  Having a depressed surface; center is at a lower level than edge; opposite of convex.

                  Condyle

                  A rounded knob on the end of a hone; a knuckle.

                  Condyloid

                  Resembling a knuckle.

                  Congenital

                  Present at birth, as in CDH, congenital dislocated hip.

                  Congruent

                  The degree of constraint of two articular implants. (congruence)

                  Convex

                  Having a rounded elevated surface; opposite of concave.

                  Coracoid

                  Like a crow's beak; variant of coronoid.

                  Costal

                  Pertaining to a rib or ribs.

                  Coxa

                  The hip; coxae, "of the hip."

                  Cranial

                  Pertaining to the cranium.

                  Cranium

                  The skull or brain pan.

                  Cruciate

                  Shaped like a cross.

                  Cruciate ligament

                  Any paired set of ligaments that cross over each other in an "X" formation, usually used to refer to the posterior cruciate ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which help stabilize the forward and backward motion of the knee.

                  Cruciate-retaining

                  A knee system design that allows the surgeon to keep the patient’s cruciate ligament.

                  Cruciate-sacrificing

                  A knee system in which the design of the implant must serve to stabilize the forward and back motion of the knee components because of an excised or deficient patient’s ligament. (see also PS)

                  CSTi

                  A specially manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also Cancellous-structured titanium)

                  Cubital

                  Pertaining to the tile space in front of the elbow joint.

                  Custom

                  An implant manufactured to the demands of a surgeon based on the specific needs of one patient

                  Cyclic fatigue

                  A biomechanical measure of stress placed on a material, measured in "cycles" of regular motion (as in joint motion - rotation, bending, etc.)

                  D

                  Deltoid

                  Triangular; resembling the Greek letter, delta.

                  Design rationale

                  The justification for an implant design based on extensive research into materials, clinical data, function, style, anatomical constraints, etc.

                  Diagnosis

                  Recognition of disease from symptoms.

                  Diathrosis

                  A freely moveable joint; plural diarthroses.

                  Digiti

                  Of a digit.

                  Digitorum

                  Of the digits.

                  Dislocation

                  The displacement of any part, especially the removal temporarily of a bone from its normal position in a joint

                  Distal

                  Remote; opposite of proximal.

                  Dorsiflex

                  To turn toward the back; opposite of palmar flex.

                  E

                  Endosteum

                  Tissue surrounding the medullary cavity of bone.

                  Epi

                  A prefix meaning "on" or "above", opposite of hypo.

                  Epicondyle

                  A prominence or a bone on or upon a condyle.

                  Epiphysis

                  A part of process of a bone which ossifles separately before making osseous union with the main portion of the bone; the "growth plate" of bones

                  Etiology

                  The study of the causes of disease

                  Eversion

                  The act of turning outward; opposite of inversion.

                  Evert

                  To turn out; to turn tile sole of the foot outward opposite of invert.

                  Extension

                  A movement at a joint bringing the two parts into or toward a straight line from a flexed position; opposite of flexion

                  External

                  On the surface or outer side; opposite of internal. Latin adjective, externus or externa

                  Extra

                  Prefix meaning "outside of," opposite of intra

                  F

                  FDA

                  Food and Drug Administration

                  Femur

                  Thigh; bone of the thigh; femoral is the adjective; femoris, "of the thigh." Smaller bone of lower leg; tile splint bone

                  Fixation

                  The act, process or operation of holding, suturing or fastening something into a fixed position. In orthopedics, often refers to the stability and immobilization of an implant into the patient’s body

                  Flexion

                  Sagittal plane movement in which the anterior surfaces of two segments are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension; bending of a joint

                  Flexure

                  The curved or bent part of a structure

                  Foramen

                  A hole; plural, foramina, or foramens

                  Fossa

                  A pit or hollow; plural, fossae

                  Fracture

                  A break in the continuity of bone

                  G

                  Glenoid

                  Resembling a pit or pocket. The glenoid fossa of the scapula is very shallow. Analogous to the acetabulum of the hip

                  GMP

                  Good Manufacturing Practices, part of total quality systems

                  H

                  Hallux

                  The great toe; hallucis "of the great toe"

                  Harris Hip Scores

                  A numerical rating scale used for evaluation of the hip. The Harris Hip Rating Scale evaluates pain, function, absence of deformity and range of motion. One hundred is the highest possible total.

                  HSS Knee Scores

                  Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores, a numerical scale for rating knees.

                  Humerus

                  The upper arm bone.

                  Hydroxyapatite (HA)

                  A bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic similar to normal bone, may be applied to implant surfaces.

                  Hyper

                  Prefix meaning above; opposite of hypo.

                  Hyperplasia

                  Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.

                  Hypertrophy

                  Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

                  Hypo

                  A prefix meaning below or under; opposite or epi or hyper.

                  I

                  IDE

                  Investigational Device Exemption (studies of experimental products).

                  Ilium

                  The bone of the flank; adjective is iliac; ilio is the combining form.

                  Implant

                  A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body. (see also stem, prosthesis)

                  Index

                  Referring to the forefinger or "pointing" finger.

                  Inferior

                  Situated or placed below; opposite of superior; inferioris, a Latin form of the adjective.

                  Infra

                  A prefix meaning "beneath," opposite of supra.

                  Ingrowth

                  The process of living bone or tissue growing up to and into the surface of an implant, very important for stabilization and long-term life of the implant. (bone or bony ingrowth)

                  Instrument

                  A tool or implement used in surgery.

                  Inter

                  A prefix meaning "between".

                  Interbody fusion

                  A surgical technique for achieving bony fusion between invertebral bodies, term used to describe a specific back surgery technique.

                  Interface

                  Surface forming a common boundary between two bodies (used to describe the interaction of implant and living tissue).

                  Internal

                  Within or on the inside.

                  Intra

                  A prefix meaning "within".

                  Inversion

                  The act of tuning inward; opposite of eversion.

                  Invert

                  To turn in; to turn the sole of the foot inward; opposite of evert.

                  Involuntary

                  Performed against the will or consent.

                  Ischium

                  Bone of the hip; adjective is ischiatic, ischial, or sciatic.

                  ISO

                  International Standards Organization, a standards issuing body.

                  K

                  Knee Society Score

                  A numerical scale for evaluating knee function developed by the Knee Society.

                  Kyphosis

                  An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.

                  L

                  Lateral

                  Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.

                  LD

                  Low-demand or low density

                  LDPE

                  Low Density Polyethylene

                  Ligament

                  Fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion.

                  Lordosis

                  Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.

                  Lumen

                  Space within a tube or organ.

                  Lunate

                  A bone of the carpus shaped like a crescent moon.

                  Luxation

                  Dislocation of a joint.

                  M

                  M/L

                  Medial/Lateral (anatomic term)

                  Major

                  Larger, opposite of minor, majus is neuter adjective.

                  Malleolus

                  A little hammer (mallet); a hammer-shaped process; ankle bone. Plural, malleoli.

                  Mandible

                  Bone of lower jaw.

                  Marrow

                  Soft central part of a bone.

                  Maxilla

                  A jawbone; particularly the bone of the upper jaw.

                  Media

                  Middle

                  Medial

                  Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.

                  Median

                  Pertaining to the middle; that is, between two other structures.

                  Meniscectomy

                  Removal of the meniscus cartilage of the knee.

                  Meniscus

                  A "C" shaped cartilage in the knee which provides a stabilization system for the knee and a measure of shock absorption

                  Metacarpus

                  Beyond the instep; the five bones of the foot between the toes and tarsal bone

                  Metal-backed

                  Term used to describe implants that have a polyethylene liner set in a metal shell or on a metal base, the metal portion would rest in a prepared area in the bone and the polyethylene side would move against other metal components

                  Minor

                  Smaller, opposite of major.

                  Morphology

                  The study of the structure of organisms, used colloquially to refer to the structure of body parts

                  N

                  Navicular

                  Boat shaped; carpal bone at the base of the thumb. Also called the scaffoid

                  Necrosis

                  Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy tissue.

                  Non-porous

                  An implant designed to be used with bone cement for stabilization; a surface that is not designed for nor coated with surfaces for ingrowth

                  O

                  O.R.I.F.

                  Open Reduction, Internal Fixation.

                  Oblique

                  Slanting; between horizontal and vertical direction..; Latin adjective, obliquus

                  Olecranon

                  From the Greek word for elbow. The prominence at the proximal end of the ulna

                  Opposition

                  The act of opposing one part to another.

                  Orbital

                  Pertaining to the orbit (eye).

                  Organ

                  A group of tissues having a special function.

                  Orthopedics

                  Branch of medical science that deals with treatment of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscle, fascia.

                  Orthopedist

                  A physician specializing in orthopedics.

                  Os

                  Bone; Os coxae - hip bone.

                  Osmosis

                  Passage of fluid across a membrane from a lesser to a more highly concentrated solution

                  Ossification

                  Formation of bone.

                  Osteophyte

                  An abnormal bony outgrowth

                  Osteoporosis

                  Increased porosity of bone.

                  Osteotomy

                  Cutting and repositioning bone to more functional position.

                  Outcome management

                  The process of collecting, tracking and interpreting outcomes data

                  Outcomes

                  The results of surgery in terms of patient satisfaction, reduction of pain, improved function, etc. Outcomes are tracked by hospitals and practices.

                  Oxygenless

                  A patented procedure used by Zimmer in the packaging of polyethylenes where oxygen is removed from the packaging. Lab testing has shown the process decreases the wear rates of PE (polyethylene).

                  P

                  Palmar

                  The palm of the hand.

                  Para

                  Prefix meaning "beside," "accessory to" or near.

                  Patella

                  The kneecap

                  Patient Satisfaction Surveys

                  Surveys which seek to measure patients’ satisfaction with their surgery, recovery, etc. These form part of the outcomes data that surgeons and hospitals track.

                  Pearls

                  Expert surgical techniques developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures. (see surgical pearls)

                  Pedal

                  Pertaining to the foot.

                  Pelvis

                  A basin or basin-like structure.

                  Peri

                  Prefix meaning "around."

                  Peripheral

                  Located on or near the surface of a part.

                  Pes

                  The foot; pedis, "of the foot."

                  Phalanges

                  Plural of phalanx, which refers to any bone of the finger or toe.

                  Plantar

                  Pertaining to the sole of the foot; plaritaris; Latin adjective plantae, "of the sole of the foot."

                  Plasma

                  Fluid portion of the blood.

                  Plasma spray

                  A coating for implants

                  Plastics

                  A common term that in orthopedic devices refers usually to polyethylene and more specifically to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). (see also polyethylene, UHMWPE)

                  PMA

                  Pre-Market Approval (FDA approval after IDE study is complete).

                  PMMA

                  Poly methylmethacrylate (bone cement). (see also cement, bone cement)

                  Polyethylene

                  A type of plastic formed by the polymerization of ethylene. Different structural properties come from differences in molecular weight, branching, cross-linkage and crystallinity. The most common form used in orthopedic devices is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).

                  Pore

                  Small holes or spaces on the surface or interior of a material.

                  Porous

                  Characterized by pores and open spaces.

                  Porous-coated

                  The design feature of a type of implant where the metal has small surface openings into which bone or tissue is intended to grow for permanent stabilization.

                  Posterior

                  Situated behind or toward the back; opposite of anterior.

                  Press-fit

                  Describes the fit at the interface of an implant with the surrounding bone; the implant is implanted without cement and is tightly "pressed" or impacted into the patient’s bone. (see also uncemented)

                  Primary

                  Initial or first; in joint replacement, this term is used to indicate the first surgery to repair or replace a joint as opposed to a revision surgery which replaces or revises an implant.

                  Process

                  A slender projecting point; Latin, processus.

                  Prognosis

                  The likely outcome of an illness

                  Pronate

                  To turn palm downward (opposite: supinate).

                  Prone

                  Lying with face downward (opposite: supine).

                  Prosthesis

                  Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute. An artificial organ or part.

                  Protract

                  To extend forward or outward; opposite of retract.

                  Proximal

                  Nearest; opposite of distal.

                  PS

                  Posterior Stabilized; a posterior stabilized knee is a type of semiconstrained total knee system that compensates for a deficient or absent posterior cruciate ligament through its surface geometry (its design minimizes forward and backward movement of the knee and substitutes for the function of the ligament).

                  Pseudarthrosis

                  A false joint developing after a fracture that has not united.

                  Pseudo

                  A prefix signifying "false.

                  PT

                  Premier Total

                  Pubis

                  Pubic bone

                  R

                  Radiolucent

                  Allowing x-rays to pass through, radiolucent areas appear dark on x-rays.

                  Radius

                  A bone of the forearm.

                  Ream,reaming

                  A verb meaning to gouge out holes or enlarge holes already made, in orthopedic surgery, bones need to be reamed to allow for the implantation of a prosthesis.

                  Recurvatum

                  Hyperextension of the knee.

                  Reduction

                  Restoration to normal position.

                  Retract

                  To pull back; opposite of protract.

                  Retrieve

                  To remove an implant from a patient (retrieved, retrieval)

                  Retro

                  Prefix meaning behind.

                  Retroflexion

                  A backward bending of one part of an organ on another portion; Opposite of anteflexion.

                  Retroversion

                  A backward turning; the entire organ is turned backward; opposite of anteversion.

                  Revision

                  In orthopedic surgery, this term indicates a subsequent surgery to alter, replace or remove an implant

                  Roentgenogram

                  A photograph made by means of roentgen rays or x-rays. The rays are named in honor of their discoverer.

                  Roentgenoscopy

                  Examination by means of a fluoroscope

                  ROM

                  The area through which a joint may be moved in all planes, measured in degrees. The greater the ROM, the more flexible the joint. One of the goals of joint replacement is to improve a patient’s ROM in the joint that may have been lost to arthritis, trauma or deformity. (range of motion)

                  Rotation

                  The act of turning about a centrally located length axis

                  S

                  Sac

                  Any bag-like organ

                  Sacrum

                  Five fused vertebrae below the last lumbar vertebra

                  Sagittal

                  Pertaining to the median vertical plane of the body

                  Scapula

                  The shoulder blade.

                  Scoliosis

                  Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine

                  Semilunar

                  Shaped like a half moon

                  Septic

                  Infection due to presence of pathogenlc organisms

                  Serrated

                  Having a saw-tooth edge

                  Serum

                  Clear portion of any animal fluid

                  Shear

                  A biomechanical term meaning a load applied parallel to the surface of a structure; shear strength is the amount of resistance in a material to angular deformation (bending) resulting from shear forces

                  Shell

                  The acetabular component, the part of a hip replacement system that serves for the hip socket

                  Sinus

                  A cavity

                  Skeleton

                  The hard framework of the body. The bones of the body collectively

                  Spinous

                  A spine-like process; Latin adjective, spinatus

                  SS

                  Stainless Steel

                  Stem

                  A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body (see also implant, prosthesis)

                  Sterile

                  Clean and free from all living micro-organisms

                  Sternum

                  The breast bone

                  Sub

                  Prefix meaning "below" or "beneath"

                  Subclavian

                  Beneath the clavicle

                  Subluxation

                  A partial or incomplete dislocation

                  Submaxillary

                  Beneath the maxilla

                  Subscapular

                  Beneath the scapula

                  Subsidence

                  The settling of a prosthesis after implantation; it is determined by comparing x-rays immediately after surgery to x-rays taken at a later date. Subsidence is a sure sign of loosening of an implant

                  Superior

                  Higher; opposite of inferior; superioris, a Latin form of the adjective

                  Supinate

                  To turn the palm of the hand upward (opposite: pronate)

                  Supine

                  Lying flat on the back (opposite: prone)

                  Supra

                  Prefix meaning "above;" super has same meaning; opposite of sub

                  Surgical pearls

                  Expert surgical techniques or tips developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures

                  Surgical technique

                  A series of steps required to complete a surgical procedure (or operation)

                  Symphysis

                  A growing together

                  Synovectomy

                  An immovable joint

                  Synovia

                  A union of bones by means of cartilage

                  Synovial Membrane

                  A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint

                  T

                  Talus

                  The ankle; a bone of the ankle. The tarsal bone articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.

                  Tarsus

                  (1) The instep; the seven bones forming the back portion of the foot (2) Connective tissue framework of the eyelids.

                  Telesession

                  An instructional course or lecture provided by one-way video, often a telesession consists of an expert surgeon discussing and/or demonstrating specific techniques or characteristics of an implant system.

                  Template

                  An outline used to trace bones in order to standardize its form; surgeons use templates of implants to measure against a patient’s x-rays to select the best size and best design for the patient’s anatomy and surgical needs.

                  Tendon

                  Fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones and other parts. Syn. - sinew

                  Tensile strength

                  A biomechanical measurement of the amount of stress required to cause a given material to fail.

                  Thoracic

                  Pertaining to the chest; thoracico or thoraco, containing forms

                  Ti

                  The abbreviation for Titanium, a metal often used in implants

                  Tibia

                  Latin name of shin bone. Larger bone in the lower leg. Pertaining to the tibia; Latin adjective, tibialis

                  Tissue

                  A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a particular function

                  Titanium

                  A metal often used in the manufacture of orthopedic devices or implants. It has good fatigue, wear and strength characteristics and is often combined with other metals in alloys which enhance desirable characteristics.

                  Trabecular

                  A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.

                  Trochanter

                  Either of two bony processes of the upper femoral shaft for muscle attachment

                  Trochlear groove

                  The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur (the front-facing notch at the lowest part of the femur where the femur joins the knee joint, this groove provides a shallow depression where the patella slides as the knee articulates).

                  Tubercle

                  A small rounded elevation of eminence on a bone

                  Tuberosity

                  Broad eminence on a bone

                  U

                  UHMWPE

                  Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, a type of polyethylene with superior wear properties, very commonly used in orthopedic devices. (see also polyethylene, plastic)

                  Ulna

                  The inner and larger bone or the forearm; In the correct anatomic position, palms forward, the inner and larger bone of the forearm, between the wrist and the elbow, on the side opposite the thumb.

                  Ultra-congruent

                  Highly congruent, contains a high degree of constraint between two articular implants (see also congruent)

                  Uncemented

                  A prosthesis that is implanted without cement (see also press-fit)

                  UNI

                  Unicompartmental knee (also can be the abbreviation for unilateral)

                  Unilateral

                  One-sided, affecting only one-side (ex. a unilateral knee replacement would replace just one knee, not both) (see also uni)

                  V

                  Valgus

                  A term denoting position meaning bent outward (knock-knee) or twisted, applied especially to deformities in which a part is bent outward. Also increased femoral head-neck angle

                  Value-added services

                  This is a broad term that encompasses systems that help orthopedic customers (surgeons and hospitals) meet the demands of managed care, these systems are not directly related to orthopedic implants

                  Varus

                  (1) Turned inward; bowlegged. (2) A condition in which a clubfooted person walks on outer border of the foot. Also, decreased femoral head-neck angle

                  Vastus

                  Wide or great

                  Vertex

                  The summit or apex

                  Viscous

                  Sticky or gummy, thick fluid

                  Vitreous

                  Glassy

                  Voluntary

                  Performed in accordance with the will; opposite of involuntary

                  W

                  Wear

                  The loss of material from solid surfaces due to mechanical abrasion

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